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CRYSTAL and LATTICES

CRYSTAL:

Crystal is built-up from regularly repeating structural motifs, which may be atoms, molecules, or group of atoms, molecules, or ions. A space lattice is the pattern formed by points representing the location of these motifs. A space lattice is a three-dimensional, infinite array of points, each of which is surrounded in an identical way by its neighbours, and which defines the basic structure of the crystal. 

(Do not mix up motif with lattice points. Lattice points are infinitesimal point in space. Atoms are physical objects. Lattice points do not necessarily lie at the center of motif.)

 1. Each lattice point specifies the location of a structural motif (for example, a molecule or a group of molecules). The crystal lattice is the array of lattice points; the crystal structure is the collection of structural motifs arranged according to the lattice. 

 2. Crystals are bonded by plane surfaces. These surfaces are called faces. Intersection of two faces is called edge. Angle between normal of two intersecting faces is called interfacial angle.

UNIT CELL:

 Collection of lattice points, whose repetition produces the whole lattice is called a unit cell. The whole lattice can be considered to be made by repetition of unit cells.

  A unit cell is commonly formed by joining neighboring lattice points by straight lines . Such unit cells are called primitive. It is sometimes more convenient to draw larger non-primitive unit cells that also have lattice points at their centres or on pairs of opposite faces. An infinite number of different unit cells can describe the same lattice, but the one with sides that have the shortest lengths and that are most nearly perpendicular to one another is normally chosen. The lengths of the sides of a unit cell are denoted a, b, and c, and the angles between them are denoted a , β, and g .Unit cells are classified into seven crystal systems.

Bravais Lattice:

Although there are only 7 crystal systems or shapes, there are 14 different crystal lattices, called Bravais Lattices. (3 different cubic types, 2 different tetragonal types, 4 different orthorhombic types, 2 different monoclinic types, 1 rhombohedral, 1 hexagonal, 1 triclinic).


 

 
 





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Rooftop Solar in India

Science Magazine India explore related to the Target 2022 for rooftop solar in India. The government has set itself a target of 100 GW of solar power by 2022, of which 60 GW is to come from utilities and 40 GW from rooftop solar installations. As such, rooftop fall under two brackets: commercial and residential. This simply has to do with whether the solar panels are being installed on top of commercial buildings or residential complexes. Rooftop solar provides companies and residential areas the option of an alternative source of electricity to that provided by the grid. While the main benefit of this is to the environment, since it reduces the dependence on fossil-fuel generated electricity, solar power can also augment the grid supply in places where it is erratic. Rooftop solar also has the great benefit of being able to provide electricity to those areas that are not yet connected to the grid — remote locations and areas where the terrain makes it difficult to set up power stations and lay power lines. One of the major problems with rooftop solar — and what affects solar energy generation in general — is the variability in supply. Not only can the efficiency of the solar panels vary on any given day depending on how bright the sunlight is, but the solar panels also produce no electricity during the night. Arguably, night is when off-grid locations most need alternative sources of electricity. The solution to this is storage. Storage technology for electricity, however, is still underdeveloped and storage solutions are expensive. So, while some companies will be able to afford storage solutions for the solar energy they produce, most residential customers will find the cost of installing both rooftop solar panels and storage facilities prohibitive. Residential areas also come with the associated issues of use restrictions of the roof — if the roof is being used for solar generation, then it cannot be used for anything else. Many states have adopted a net metering policy, which allows disaggregated power producers to sell excess electricity to the grid. However, the subsidised tariffs charged to residential customers undermine the economic viability of installing rooftop solar panels.




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S & T Newspaper-UDDESHY
उद्देश्य ( मासिक समाचार पत्र) को विज्ञान, तकनीक, स्किल और शिक्षा में नवीन आयामों के लिए पढ़े | 




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S&T Newspaper-UDDESHY- SEP 2017 ISSUE
Safe Disposal of Expired Antibiotics

Science Magazine India finds from media that Safe disposal of expired antibiotics is crucial as the Growing antimicrobial resistance is also linked to the discharge of drugs and some chemicals into the environment. This is one of the most worrying health threats today.




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SOLID STATE SCIENCE
AMORPHOUS SOLIDS:
Amorphous solids are those whose constituent particles are randomly arranged and have no ordered long range structure. Example: Rubber, Glass etc.
CRYSTALLINE SOLIDS:

Crystalline solids

Constituent particle

Bonding type

Examples

Ionic

Positive and negative ions

Columbic forces

NaCl and KCl

Covalent

Atoms connected by covalent bonds

Sharing of electrons

SiO2, Diamond

Molecular

Polar and non-polar molecules

Intermolecular forces including H-bonding

P4, CO2, CH4, CCl4, H2O

Metallic

Cations and electrons

Metallic

Na, Au, Cu

Atomic

Atoms

Weak dispersion forces

Inert gases





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